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Выбор способов перевозки медикаментов с температурным режимом

 

На текущий момент условия перевозки  термолабильных лекарственных препаратов регламентируют только перевозку медицинских иммунобиологических препаратов (МИБП). Специальные требования, к транспортировке вакцин и других препаратов МИБП определены Санитарно-эпидемиологическими правилами СП 3.3.2.3332-16 "Санитарно-эпидемиологические правила СП 3.3.2.3332-16 "Условия транспортирования и хранения иммунобиологических лекарственных препаратов".

Таким образом, при наличии на транспортной упаковке лекарственных средств обозначения  температурного режима при перевозке лекарственного средства, не являющегося МИБП, следует придерживаться данных указаний производителя. При перевозке медицинских иммунобиологических препаратов следует соблюдать требования СП 3.3.2.1248-03.

Кроме требований к использованию с оборудования Холодовой Цепи (рефрижераторы, термоконтейнеры и хладоэлементы) санитарные правила устанавливают требования к самому оборудованию и обязуют грузоотправителя использовать в процессе перевозки средства документирования температурного режима (термоиндикаторы, терморегистраторы, термографы).

Способы перевозки медикаментов с температурным режимом делятся на две основные группы – авиационная доставка в термоконтейнерах и автомобильная доставка с использованием специальных рефрижераторов. В свою очередь, авиационная доставка может быть организована как в составе  консолидированной партии, так и отдельным грузом. Автомобильная перевозка медикаментов рефрижератором подразделяется на перевозку отдельным рефрижератором и на перевозку в составе сборного груза. Перечислим плюсы, минусы и особенности каждого типа доставок.

Авиационная или автомобильная перевозка медикаментов. Медикаменты, перед транспортировкой авиационным транспортом необходимо упаковать в изотермические контейнеры, способные поддерживать необходимый температурный режим в течении всего срока перевозки. С учетом расходов на упаковку вакцин в термоконтейнеры, увеличения объема груза из-за использования термобоксов и более высоких тарифов по сравнению с автомобильными, стоимость перевозки медикаментов в расчете на единицу веса препарата обычно в десятки раз превышает расходы на автомобильную доставку.

При авиационной доставке лекарственных средств перевозчик обязан строго контролировать транзитное время и в случае несоблюдения груз должен возвращаться на переупаковку термоконтейнера. 

Слабым звеном в авиационных перевозках медикаментов обычно являются термоконтейнеры. Дешевые термоконтейнеры, в использованием хладоэлементов на основе воды хорошо удерживают внутреннюю температуру менее 8°С при положительных внешних температурах и совершенно не сопротивляются на пороге  2°С при воздействии отрицательных температур. Таким образом, при перевозке медикаментов в зимний период с использованием термоконтейнеров с хладоэлементами на водной основе может привести к замораживанию препарата даже при соблюдении транзитного времени.

Автомобильная перевозка медикаментов рефрижератором лишена подобных сложностей и рисков, но возможна не во все регионы нашей страны. Кроме того автомобильная перевозка может обойтись дороже если маленький груз отправляется на значительное расстояние.

Авиационная доставка медикаментов в составе консолидированного груза или отдельным грузом. Обычно услуги консолидированной авиационной доставки предоставляют курьерские компании. Изначально подобный сервис предлагался для срочной  доставки почты, посылок и бандеролей. При таком типе перевозки, логистический провайдер, обычно в течение дня, собирает грузы от разных клиентов, сортирует и консолидирует  грузы по регионам отправки, далее термоконтейнер следует в составе консолидированного груза до аэропорта в городе получения.  После чего в течение дня региональный представитель курьерской компании расконсолидирует и доставляет грузы до конечных получателей. Обычно минимальное время доставки получается не менее 2-3 суток. Плюсом данного вида доставки является невысокая стоимость доставки мелких грузов, к минусам можно отнести увеличенное транзитное время по сравнению с доставкой отдельным грузом. Так же стоит учесть, что в случае непредвиденных обстоятельств (задержка или отмена рейса и т.д.), логистический провайдер не способен вернуть часть ранее  консолидированного груза на переупаковку термоконтейнера.

Доставка медицинских препаратов отдельным грузом лишена описанных недостатков, но влечет за собой большие расходы при перевозке небольших грузов (один-два термоконтейнера). Расходы при консолидированной доставке и доставке отдельным грузом примерно сравниваются при весе грузов более 50 кг.

Автомобильная перевозка медикаментов отдельным рефрижератором или в составе сборного груза. Услуга перевозки медикаментов в составе сборного груза предназначена для эффективной по стоимости доставки небольших, несрочных грузов. В процессе перевозки грузы от различных клиентов собираются на складе провайдера, сортируются и консолидируются по регионам и отправляются в регион получения в рефрижератором грузоподъёмностью 20 тонн.  Основным минусом данного типа перевозки является заметно большее время, затрачиваемое на перевозку медикаментов в сравнении с отправкой отдельным рефрижератором. Важно, что в перевозке груза рефрижераторным сборником задействованы как минимум три автомобиля и два холодовых склада что делает невозможным документирование соблюдения температурного режима в соответствии с требованиями СП 3.3.2.3332-16. Так же следует учесть необходимость шести перегрузок  в сравнении с одной погрузкой и одной выгрузкой при перевозке медикаментов отдельным рефрижератором. Расходы на доставку грузов в составе сборного рефрижератора примерно сравниваются с расходами на перевозку медикаментов отдельной машиной при весе груза более 3 тонн.

Надеемся, что наш краткий обзор способов перевозки термолабильных медикаментов поможет Вам сделать правильный выбор средств доставки Ваших грузов.

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